The Seventh Seal and
the Golden Censer
when he had opened the seventh seal, there was
silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.
2 And I saw the seven angels which stood before God;
and to them were given seven trumpets.
3 And another angel came and stood at the altar,
having a golden censer; and there was given unto him
much incense, that he should offer it with the
prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which
was before the throne.
4 And the smoke of the incense, which came with the
prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of
the angel's hand.
5 And the angel took the censer, and filled it with
fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth: and
there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings,
and an earthquake.
6 And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets
prepared themselves to sound.
7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and
fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the
earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all
green grass was burnt up.
8 And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great
mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and
the third part of the sea became blood;
9 And the third part of the creatures which were in the
sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships
10 And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great
star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell
upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the
fountains of waters;
11 And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the
third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men
died of the waters, because they were made bitter.
12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of
the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and
the third part of the stars; so as the third part of
them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third
part of it, and the night likewise.
13 And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the
midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe,
woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the
other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which
are yet to sound!
WHEN HE HAD OPENED THE SEVENTH SEAL, THERE WAS SILENCE
IN HEAVEN ABOUT THE SPACE OF HALF AN HOUR.
The searching question "Who shall be able to stand?"
has been answered in chapter seven. It will be those who
are sealed with the Seal of the Living God. And the ones
who are sealed are the Overcomers mentioned so often in
the Book of Revelation. They are clothed in garments of
white, the righteousness of Christ.
And now the Seventh Seal takes us back in time, to
that great and glorious event the Second Coming of
Christ. The Book of Revelation looks into the yet
distant future with a sweep of prophetic events and then
carries us back into the past, in order to add some
important detail or details which makes the whole thing
And when he had opened the seventh seal
In chapter 6 we had portrayed the opening of the
first six of the seven seals. Then
chapter 7 interrupts
the opening of the seals to show that God has a true
people who will be able to stand through the very
difficult days which are before them. By way of
encouragement, the Redeemed are revealed as victorious
at last, standing before the throne of God.
There was silence in heaven, about the space of half
In John's visions of heaven, one thing has stood out,
heaven is a place filled with sound. John has given us a
glimpse of the great choruses of praise, not only of
angels, but from the Redeemed as well. Now there is
There was silence in heaven when Jesus suffered on
Calvary. 'The Desire of Ages' by EG White page 693 says,
"God suffered with His Son. Angels beheld the
Saviour's agony. They saw their Lord enclosed by legions
of satanic forces, His nature weighed down with a
shuddering, mysterious dread. There was silence in
heaven. No harp was touched. Could mortals have viewed
the amazement of the angelic host as in silent grief
they watched the Father separating His beams of light,
love, and glory from His beloved Son, they would better
understand how offensive in His sight is sin."
The silence mentioned in this verse is brought about
by different circumstances. This is mentioned in
25:31, "When the Son of man shall come in His glory,
and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon
the throne of His glory."
In heaven all is quiet. The heavenly hosts have left
the celestial courts to accompany Christ to this earth,
at long last the great event actually takes place, soon
the Redeemed will be on their way to the celestial land
never more to be separated from the Saviour.
About the space of half an hour
Using the Bible formula for prophetic time, a Day in
prophecy equals a Year. Half an hour is a 48th part of a
day. A Bible year is 360 days and so the 48th part of
360 equals 7.5 days. So half an hour would be about one
SAW THE SEVEN ANGELS WHICH STOOD BEFORE GOD; AND TO THEM
WERE GIVEN SEVEN TRUMPETS.
And I saw the seven angels which stood before God
Hardly had the Seven Seals been opened when John is
called to view seven angels ready to blow Seven
Trumpets. These trumpets parallel the Seven Churches and
the Seven Seals. The Seven Churches picture conditions
within the church during the Gospel age. The Seven Seals
portray the condition of the church at different
periods, plus great events connected with our Lord's
return. The Seven Trumpets reveal political and military
events which affected the church.
And to them were given seven trumpets
In ancient times, trumpets were used to warn of
danger, or to announce important events. The trumpet was
especially used as an alarm for war.
latter half says, "...I cannot hold my peace, because
thou hast heard, 0 my soul, the sound of the trumpet,
the alarm of war."
The Seven Trumpets are symbolic of threatened and
impending judgments upon a world that rejects the
Gospel. These judgments fell firstly on the Roman Empire
and later on the kingdoms which arose out of her ruins,
the nations of today.
Isaiah 26:9 latter half says,
"...for when thy judgments are in the earth, the
inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness."
These judgments are for the purpose of making men
realise that God is behind the scenes, directing the
affairs of this earth. The Seven Trumpets are the third
view of world history as it affects the Christian
Church, and it covers the same period of history as the
Seven Churches and the Seven Seals.
All three of these heavenly visions terminate with
the Second Advent of Jesus Christ. "By the seven
trumpets the world's kingdoms are overturned to make way
for Christ's universal kingdom." (Jamieson, Fausset
and Brown. Commentary on the Whole Bible.)
ANOTHER ANGEL CAME AND STOOD AT THE ALTAR, HAVING A
GOLDEN CENSER; AND THERE WAS GIVEN UNTO HIM MUCH
INCENSE, THAT HE SHOULD OFFER IT WITH THE PRAYERS OF ALL
SAINTS UPON THE GOLDEN ALTAR WHICH WAS BEFORE THE
And another angel came and stood at the altar, having
a golden censer; and there was given unto him much
After seeing the seven angels receive the trumpets
from God's throne, John's attention is directed to
another scene. As the seven angels stand poised ready to
blow seven trumpets, and as the details of battle,
bloodshed, and cruelty are about to be given, still
another angel is seen in heaven. This angel has a golden
censer about to be offered at the altar. It is a
reminder that in the middle of a world torn by battle,
God's people are remembered in heaven.
That he should offer it with the prayers of all
saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne
The angel standing before the golden altar symbolises
Jesus' work as our heavenly mediator. The golden altar
on which incense burned perpetually, is a type of Jesus'
Romans 8:34 says, "Who is he that
condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is
risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who
also maketh intercession for us."
As Jesus stands before the golden altar and the
throne, He is actively engaged in influencing not only
men but also God. Jesus has entered heaven "to appear
in the presence of God for us" (Hebrews 9:24). His
personal interest assures us that our prayers are taken
to God and as He ministers before the golden altar, He
mixes our prayers with incense, a symbol of His shed
blood and His righteous life.
SMOKE OF THE INCENSE, WHICH CAME WITH THE PRAYERS OF THE
SAINTS, ASCENDED UP BEFORE GOD OUT OF THE ANGEL'S HAND.
Ascending before the throne from the golden altar
of incense are the prayers of God's people. One thing is
clear, that which is revealed in the sounding of the
Seven Trumpets, may seem as if all is in confusion among
the nations, but the events which take place are under
God's direction. There is the assurance that the prayers
of God's people as they ascend to the throne room of God
are heard and answered.
ANGEL TOOK THE CENSER, AND FILLED IT WITH FIRE OF THE
ALTAR, AND CAST IT INTO THE EARTH: AND THERE WERE
VOICES, AND THUNDERINGS, AND LIGHTNINGS, AND AN
And the angel took the censer, and filled it with
fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth
In these verses, we have in the angel at the altar of
incense, a picture of Christ's intercession for His
people throughout the Christian era. The prayers of
God's people are seen ascending, and among them the
prayers of the martyrs in the fifth seal: "How long,
0 Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge
our blood on them that dwell on the earth?"
This was not only the prayer of the martyrs, but also
the theme of the prayers of all of God's children who
have suffered for the sake of the Gospel. The action of
the angel in throwing a censer of fire unmixed with
incense into the earth symbolises that these prayers are
now being answered. God's anger against those who
persecute His people will not be held back forever. When
it is finally poured out, there will be no mercy nor
intercession of Christ.
And there were voices, and thunderings, and
lightnings, and an earthquake
These are physical manifestations of nature that take
place during the 7 Last Plagues and particularly under
the seventh plague which climaxes with a world
THE SEVEN ANGELS WHICH HAD THE SEVEN TRUMPETS PREPARED
THEMSELVES TO SOUND.
The Trumpets are Judgments, starting with the Roman
Empire and finishing with the Plagues. The Plagues are
judgments on the followers of great Babylon. It is worth
noting the relationship between the Trumpets and the
Seven Last Plagues.
Upon the earth
Upon the earth
Upon the sea
Upon the sea
Rivers and fountains of
Rivers and fountains of
The sun smitten
Upon the sun
Great river Euphrates
Great river Euphrates
Mystery of God finished
It is done
thunderings, earthquake, great hail
lightnings, great earthquake, great hail
It is also worth noting
that immediately proceeding the sounding of the
trumpets, the censer which had been used in the temple
for the offering of incense, was filled with fire and
cast to the earth. And immediately preceding the 7 Last
Plagues, Jesus threw down the censer which was a signal
and sign that He has finished His work of intercession
on behalf of men in the heavenly Sanctuary.
Trumpets and the Plagues are similar, as they are
judgments and scourges upon the wicked. But while they
are similar they are not identical; one is a type of the
other. The Trumpets for the most part are in the past
while the Plagues are still in the future.
ANGEL SOUNDED, AND THERE FOLLOWED HAIL AND FIRE MINGLED
WITH BLOOD, AND THEY WERE CAST UPON THE EARTH: AND THE
THIRD PART OF TREES WERE BURNT UP, AND ALL GREEN GRASS
WAS BURNT UP.
The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and
fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the
The first judgment fell on the Roman Empire. It was
to the Roman Empire that the soldiers of the cross first
proclaimed the Gospel following its rejection by the
Jews. The terrible persecutions of the Christians by
Rome under the Caesars and the relentless efforts of
this power to completely exterminate them is part of
history. Rome, the universal kingdom at the time of
Christ's first advent, was wonderfully blessed with a
knowledge of the truth, but because this blessing was
scorned, she crumbled and fell.
In the days of Constantine, the empire was divided,
Rome being the western capital, and Constantinople the
eastern. At the death of Constantine, three divisions
were made in order to seat each one of his three sons on
a throne; this triple division is recognised throughout
the trumpet history. Of these divisions, Italy, or the
Western Roman Empire, was known as 'one third'. While
the three divisions are referred to, the first division
into an eastern and western empire, is also preserved,
until the capture of Constantinople by the Turks.
The first four Trumpets embrace the downfall of that
great Western Empire between 396 and 476 A.D. "The
empire was in a terrible state of decay" as one
historian wrote, "a festering mass 0 f corruption."
The corruption, which existed, was largely the result of
the union of church and state, which commenced with
And there followed hail and fire mingled with blood
Hail, is symbolic of the northern origin of the
invaders. Fire: the devastating character of the
invasion. Alaric destroyed city and country by flame.
Blood: the slaughter accompanying the invasion. Amid
'fire' and 'blood', the Visigoths under the leadership
of Alaric, effected the first successful invasion of the
Western Roman Empire. Edward Gibbon describes the
'flaming villages' and the 'deep bloody traces' left in
the wake of these Gothic invaders.
At the time of the first Trumpet, the moral
degeneration of Rome had become indescribable. Seneca, a
Roman historian wrote, "Vice no longer hides itself,
it stalks abroad before all eyes, innocence is no longer
rare, it has ceased to exist." Strange as it may
seem the Barbarian tribes from the north not only saved
civilisation but Christianity as well. The Barbarian
tribes came down not only to punish Rome but also to
receive the Gospel that the Church had neglected to take
And they were cast upon the earth
What was cast upon the earth? Hail, fire and Blood.
Hail is a symbol of God's judgments.
Job 38:22,23 says, "… or hast thou seen
the treasures of the hail, Which I have reserved against
the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?"
Fire and Blood represent His anger.
19:12,13 says, "His eyes were as a flame of fire, and
on his head were many crowns … And He was clothed with a
vesture dipped in blood…" The Hail and Fire and
Blood being cast on the earth symbolises the judgments
on men and nations.
And the third part of the trees were burnt up, and
all green grass was burnt up
The 'third part' used so frequently in connection
with the Trumpets suggests incompleteness. This term is
not used with the Plagues, as these are much greater in
extent and severity than the Trumpets. It is rather
interesting to notice that when God foretold the doom of
the nations and the coming of Christ, He declared: "I
will overturn, overturn, overturn it: and it shall be no
more, until he come whose right it is; and I will give
it him" (Ezekiel 21:27). A single overturning would
have been incomplete, only a part, or third of the
whole. On three occasions Alaric besieged Rome (A.D.
408, 409, 410.). The third time he was successful in
The trees burnt up, and all green grass
The earth with its vegetation is shown as the special
target of this scourge. It is a symbol of the severity
of the invasion of the Roman Empire by the Visigoths
SECOND ANGEL SOUNDED, AND AS IT WERE A GREAT MOUNTAIN
BURNING WITH FIRE WAS CAST INTO THE SEA: AND THE THIRD
PART OF THE SEA BECAME BLOOD.
And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great
mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea
The words "as it were" show that the mountain is not
literal but symbolic. In
Jeremiah 51:25 Babylon is
described as a destroying mountain, "Behold, I am
against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the LORD,
which destroyest all the earth: and I will stretch out
mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks,
and will make thee a burnt mountain." You can see
how neatly this fits the picture of a burning mountain
cast into the sea, for Babylon is described as a
destroying mountain which later becomes a burnt out
The scene of the second Trumpet changes from the
shores of the Baltic to the coasts and waters of the
Mediterranean. This great sea was the centre of the
Roman world and of the commerce and life of many of the
The Vandals under the leadership of the 'terrible
Genseric' was one of the fiercest and most destructive
of the barbarian nations. The prophecy says "was cast
into the sea", and how true, for the Vandals became a
maritime power and were called "the pirates of the sea."
In Edward Gibbons' History of the Roman Empire Vol 3.
Chap 36 he writes, "Genseric cast his eyes toward the
sea: he resolved to create a naval power." The
Vandals have left a name that even today stands for
And the third part of the sea became blood
The prophecy says that as a result of the burning
mountain being cast into the sea, a third part of the
sea would become blood. The sea becoming blood is a
symbol of war, destruction, and bloodshed. The sea in
this case must be literal as there is mention of ships,
however it is also a symbol of peoples, nations and
tongues as we notice in
We have noticed two symbols, possibly three used in
this verse 'burning mountain' and 'blood'. The 'sea',
though literal, can still be used in a symbolic sense.
The suggestion is that fire would bring about this
THIRD PART OF THE CREATURES WHICH WERE IN THE SEA, AND
HAD LIFE, DIED: AND THE THIRD PART OF THE SHIPS WERE
And the third part of the creatures which were in the
sea, and had life, died
Obviously this is a symbol, and like the burning
mountain and blood represents death and destruction. It
is worth noting the similarity between this text and
chapter 16:3 "And the second angel poured
out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of
a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea."
And the third part of the ships were destroyed
The Romans assembled two mighty fleets to defeat the
Vandal power, but the clever Admiral of the Vandals
under the cover of darkness, towed ships loaded with
combustible materials, among the ships of the Roman
fleet, setting fire to them. That night saw more than
1,113 ships and 100,000 men destroyed. "The fire of
the Vandal volcano might not spend itself, until not
only what was habitable in the Western sea was
destroyed, but the "third part of the ships" also; those
that navigated the sea - third of the Western Empire"
(Horae Apocalypticae. Rev. E.B. Elliot, A.M. Vol. 1 pp
353-356, 3rd edition).
THIRD ANGEL SOUNDED, AND THERE FELL A GREAT STAR FROM
HEAVEN, BURNING AS IT WERE A LAMP, AND IT FELL UPON THE
THIRD PART OF THE RIVERS, AND UPON THE FOUNTAINS OF
And the third sounded, and there fell a great star
from heaven, burning as it were a lamp
A Star is a symbol of angels (Revelation
12:4, first part, verse 9, last part). It is
also an emblem of a prince or a ruler, or person of
distinguished rank. Moffat gives it this way, "A huge
star blazing like a torch dropped out of the sky".
This is clearly the description of a meteor which
appeared suddenly, had a short and brilliant career,
then disappeared as suddenly and unexpectedly as it had
came. A Meteor flashing through the sky is a good
description of the third Barbarian horde that scourged
Rome and especially the Western Empire. Under the
leadership of Attila, the Huns devastated the country
and helped to overthrow the country.
It is rather significant that Attila styled himself
as "The Scourge of God." He claimed that he was divinely
directed to scourge the Roman Empire. "Not merely the
degenerate Romans, but the bold and hardy warriors of
Germany and Scandinavia, were appalled at the numbers,
the ferocity, the ghastly appearance, and the
lightning-like rapidity of the Huns ... His own warriors
believed him (Attila) to be the inspired favourite of
their deities, and followed him with fanatic zeal. His
enemies looked on him as the preappointed minister of
Heaven's wrath against themselves" (Decisive Battles of
the World, Sir Edward S. Creasy, Chap 6. p.162).
The fact that this power 'fell' and was not 'cast'
upon the Empire has a special significance. The Huns
were not driven by another foe as were the Goths and the
Vandals. They came voluntarily for they claimed
supernatural guidance. The Huns were of Mongolian stock
and were Asiatics rather than Europeans. They conquered
China in 200 B.C. In the latter part of the 4th Century
they marched westward, driving the Teutonic tribes
before them, literally pushing them or casting them on
the empire of Rome.
And it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and
upon the fountains of waters
This symbolic meteor "fell upon the third part of
the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters."
Because the commerce of the Empire cantered in the
Mediterranean, the Romans called it 'our own sea'. Of
still greater importance to the existence of the Empire
were the three great boundary rivers by which the
legions of Rome kept back the Barbarian hordes for
These rivers were the Rhine, the Danube and the
Euphrates. The Huns became the masters of the river
Danube, thus the meteor fell upon one third of the
rivers, or one of the three rivers upon which the life
of the Empire depended.
NAME OF THE STAR IS CALLED WORMWOOD: AND THE THIRD PART
OF THE WATERS BECAME WORMWOOD; AND MANY MEN DIED OF THE
WATERS, BECAUSE THEY WERE MADE BITTER.
And the name of the star is called wormwood: and the
third part of the waters became wormwood
Wormwood is a plant of bitter taste that grows in
Palestine. In Scripture it means bitter sorrow and
Lamentations 3:19 says, "Remembering mine
affliction and my misery, the wormwood and the gall."
Like flames of fire from heaven, came Genseric the
Vandal, Alaric the Goth and Attila the Hun, leaving in
their wake scenes of ruin, desolation, carnage and
The Star called 'wormwood' pictures the bitter
desolation after his attacks. Rushing like a blazing
meteor, this bold and crafty leader boasted that the
grass would never grow where his horse's feet had trod.
The word 'Hun' to this day is a synonym for plunder and
And many men died of the waters, because they were
Fountains, rivers, and wells are sources of life and
blessing. This star which fell from heaven fouled up the
waters. Many died and continued to die, that drank of
the waters, through famine, disease, and pestilence
which usually follow in the wake of war.
Like a shooting star, the Huns disappeared as
suddenly as they came. As H.G. Wells the historian has
said "Hereafter the Huns, as far as that name goes in
Europe, the Huns of Attila, disappeared out of history."
Attila, king of the Huns, died in 453. His light
went out like the snuffing of a candle. But Rome was not
delivered from her enemies. The Vandal king, Genseric,
was in the height of his power, and continued to ravage
the southern coasts until the final overthrow, about
twelve years later.
FOURTH ANGEL SOUNDED, AND THE THIRD PART OF THE SUN WAS
SMITTEN, AND THE THIRD PART OF THE MOON, AND THE THIRD
PART OF THE STARS: SO AS THE THIRD OF THEM WAS DARKENED,
AND THE DAY SHONE NOT FOR A THIRD PART OF IT, AND THE
And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of
the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and
the third part of the stars
When the sun, moon and stars cease to shine, there is
complete darkness. As this Trumpet judgment is directed
against the Western part of the Roman Empire, the lights
are to be extinguished.
Now who would be the leading lights of Western Rome?
The Emperors, senators and consuls, without these, the
Empire cannot continue to exist. Notice this excellent
statement by Joseph Mede, "The sun shone at Rome as
long as the consular dignity and the kingdom was
possessed of authority over other cities and provinces.
The moon and the stars shone there as long as the
ancient power of the senate and of the other magistrates
remained. But these being all taken away (which was done
by this trumpet), what was there but darkness, and a
universal failure of light, both diurnal and noctural
namely, what belonged to that city, to which a third
part of the light of heaven was attributed" ('Clavis
Apocalyptica' by Joseph Mede (1627), translated by R.B,
Cooper, p.171 London: Rivington 1833).
One puppet Emperor after another arose until at last
a mere boy, Romulus Augustulus was given the Roman
purple. During the last twenty years of the existence of
the Western Empire, nine emperors had successively
disappeared. Augustulus was a mere tool in the hands of
the numerous barbarians who were now in Italy and upon
In the year 476 Odoacer, the chief of a barbarian
remnant of Attila, declared that the name and office of
the Roman emperor of the West should be abolished. The
Senate bowed in submission, and so Romulus Augustulus
the last of the Roman rulers was dethroned. The Sun of
the Empire had set. The 'moon' and 'stars', that is the
consuls and the Senate lingered a little longer. But
before another half century had passed these too, were
So as the third part of them was darkened, and the
day shone not for a third part of it, and the night
The Roman Empire of the West was a thing of the past.
The territory once held by the ruling kingdom of the
world was divided among the barbarians who had assisted
in its overthrow. Rome was now broken into fragments,
and the ten divisions presented by the prophet Daniel
were each given power. Just as it is impossible for iron
and miry clay to unite, so the fragments of the Western
Roman Empire will remain separate until the end of time.
The history of the Middle Ages begins with the fall
of Rome in the year 476 A.D. and within the next few
years every obstacle was cleared away for the Papacy to
have a clear road to the throne. Odoacer, by faith an
Arian and the king of the Heruli, was the first of the
three horns to be plucked up by the Little Horn of
Daniel 7:8 which exalted itself, and spoke great words
against the Most High. As the nations fell, and the
emperors were unable to provide protection, then men
sought for safety in the shadow of the church. Rapidly
the power of the bishop increased, and from the decaying
ruins of ancient Rome, the Papacy arose.
Europe was now entering the time when the "Sun of
Righteousness was to be obscured" and God's Two
Witnesses were to do their prophesying clothed in
sackcloth. The fall of Rome was a mighty event and its
fall is a type of the time of trouble, which takes place
just before the final destruction of the world.
BEHELD, AND HEARD AN ANGEL FLYING THROUGH THE MIDST OF
HEAVEN, SAYING WITH A LOUD VOICE, WOE, WOE, WOE, TO THE
INHABITERS OF THE EARTH BY REASON OF THE OTHER VOICES OF
THE TRUMPET OF THE THREE ANGELS, WHICH ARE YET TO SOUND!
And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the
midst of heaven saying with a loud voice
This temporary break in the sequence of the Trumpets
calls special attention to the last three woes. The
Barbarian warfare had crushed a once mighty and powerful
nation. The prophecy indicates that there are worse
things ahead. Now we leave the first Four Trumpets
behind and move into the time of the Three Woes.
Woe, woe, woe to the inhabiters of the earth by
reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three
angels, which are yet to sound
The last Three Trumpets are known as the Woe
Trumpets. These war scourges symbolise the judgments
that would lay Eastern Rome in the dust, and down at the
end of time, the modern nations in the awful war of
The prophecy moves into a period, which goes down in
history as one of the worst this world has known (the
Dark Ages). The struggle between truth and error has
always been a bitter one. In all of God's plans He has
man's welfare and happiness to the fore, while Satan
works hard for the utter destruction of all things. As
we move into a study of the Three Woes we see once again
the efforts of Satan to bring ruin to the plan of