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Psalm 110

A Psalm of David.

King James Version
1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.
4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.
5 The Lord at thy right hand Shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath.
6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries.
7 He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head.1

Bible Commentary
1. The Lord said unto my Lord. Substituting the Hebrew words for "Lord" we have the following, "Yahweh said unto 'adoni'". According to Jesus' statement the conversation occurred between God the Father and God the Son. Christ is seated in the place of highest honour in the universe, the right hand of His Father (see Eph. 1:20-23; cf. 1 Cor. 15:24-28).2
Sit. As a king (Ps 29:10), though the position rather than posture is intimated (compare Ac 7:55, 56).3
Sit at my right hand. Not only a mark of honour (1Ki 2:19), but also implied participation of power (Ps 45:9; Mr 16:19; Eph 1:20).3
Until I make. The dominion of Christ over His enemies, as commissioned by God, and entrusted with all power (Mt 28:18) for their subjugation, will assuredly be established (1Co 15:24-28).3
Thine enemies thy footstool. An expression taken from the custom of Eastern conquerors (compare Jos 10:24; Jud 1:7) to signify a complete subjection.3

2. Rod of thy strength. A common symbol of authority and power (see Jer. 48: 17).2

Out of Zion.
 Or, the Church, in which God dwells by His Spirit, as once by a visible symbol in the tabernacle on Zion (compare Ps 2:6).3
Rule thou. Over enemies now conquered.3
In the midst. Once set upon, as by ferocious beasts (Ps 22:16), now humbly, though reluctantly, confessed as Lord (Php 2:10, 11).

3. Thy people shall be willing. Literally, "thy people voluntary offerings." When the king musters his army for the great day when the enemies of Zion will be overthrown, there will be a ready response. The people will yield willing allegiance to their leader.2
Beauties of holiness. Many Hebrew manuscripts, and Symmachus and
Jerome, read, "mountains of holiness." If this reading is correct, it pictures the mountains of Zion as the rallying point of the armies of Israel.2
From the womb . . . youth.  The word "youth" denotes a period of life distinguished for strength and activity (compare Ec 11:9). The "dew" is a constant emblem of whatever is refreshing and strengthening (Pr 19:12; Ho 14:5). The Messiah, then, as leading His people, is represented as continually in the vigour of youth, refreshed and strengthened by the early dew of God's grace and Spirit.3

4. Repent. He who understands the end from the beginning does not change His purpose. Though man's failure may necessitate a temporary interruption" of God's plan, yet in the end all things will "be carried out according to His original purpose.2
A priest for ever. The strongest possible language is employed to show that Christ is an eternal Priest. He is so by virtue of a promise of God confirmed by an oath (see Heb. 7:21). This settles the decree beyond all question.2
Order of Melchizedek. In Christ the priesthood and the kingship are united as they were in Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God (see Gen. 14:18; Heb. 5:6, 10; 6:20; 7:1-3, 11, 15,
17, 24, 28).2

5. At thy right hand. As Ps 109:31, upholding and aiding, which is not inconsistent with Ps 110:1, where the figure denotes participation of power, for here He is presented in another aspect, as a warrior going against enemies, and sustained by God.3
Shall strike through kings. Earthly potentates will not be successful in op- posing the work of the Lord. The Lord will make His cause to triumph over earthly rulers.2

6. The person is again changed. The Messiah's conquests are described, though His work and God's are the same. As after a battle, whose field is strewn with corpses, the conqueror ascends the seat of empire, so shall He "judge," or "rule," among many nations, and subdue.3
Judge. Condemn and punish them.
The places.  Or, the place of battle.
Dead bodies.  Of his enemies.
Wound.  Literally, "smite," or "crush" (compare Ps 110:5).
Heads.  All those princes who oppose him.

7. Drink.  He shall have a large portion of afflictions, while he is in the way or course of his life, before he comes to that honour of sitting at his father's right-hand. Waters in scripture frequently signify sufferings. To drink of them, signifies to feel or bear them.4
Therefore.  He shall be exalted to great glory and felicity.4
Lift up the head. Denoting that all traces of weariness are gone, and the leader is ready to go forward with renewed vigour to accomplish the task at hand (see Luke 21 :28).

References and notes
1.  King James Authorized Version
2. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary - Vol.3 pg 880, 881
3.  Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown -
4. John Wesley's Notes on the Bible -
Spurgeon' Treasury of David -
6.  John Gill's Exposition of the Bible -
Who was Melchizedek? -



A Psalm of David. This psalm was written by David, as the title shows, and which is confirmed by our Lord Jesus Christ, Matthew 22:43 and by the Apostle Peter, Acts 2:34.6

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Pearl of Messianic Psalms

This psalm takes its place among the most majestic songs of Hebrew literature. It has been styled "the pearl of Messianic psalms." Christ is presented not only as King and Ruler of this world, but also, by God's solemn oath, as eternal Priest. Compare Zech. 6:13, where Messiah is referred to as both Priest and King.2



The Priest King

The subject is THE PRIEST KING. None of the kings of Israel united these two offices, though some endeavoured to do so. Although David performed some acts which appeared to verge upon the priestly, yet he was no priest, but of the tribe of Judah, "of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning the priesthood"; and he was far too devout a man to thrust himself into that office uncalled. The Priest King here spoken of is David's Lord, a mysterious personage typified by Melchizedek, and looked for by the Jews as the Messiah. He is none other than the apostle and high priest of our profession, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews. The Psalm describes the appointment of the kingly priest, his followers, his battles, and his victory.5


Who was Melchizedek?

Melchizedek, whose name means "king of righteousness" was a king of Salem (Jerusalem) and priest of the Most High God (Genesis 14:18-20; Psalm 110:4; Hebrews 5:6-11; 6:20 -7:28). Melchizedek's sudden appearance and disappearance in the Book of Genesis are somewhat mysterious. Melchizedek and Abraham first met after Abram's defeat of Chedorlaomer and his three allies. Melchizedek presented bread and wine to Abraham and his weary men, demonstrating friendship. He bestowed a blessing on Abraham in the name of El Elyon ("God Most High"), and praised God for giving Abraham a victory in battle (Genesis 14:18-20).  Abraham presented Melchizedek with a tithe (a tenth) of all the items he had gathered. By this act Abraham indicated that he recognized Melchizedek as a fellow-worshiper of the one true God as well as a priest who ranked higher spiritually than himself. Melchizedek's existence shows that there were people other than Abraham and his family who served the true God.7


Melchizedek: a type of Christ

In Psalm 110, a messianic psalm written by David (Matthew 22:43), Melchizedek is seen as a type of Christ. This theme is repeated in the Book of Hebrews, where both Melchizedek and Christ are considered kings of righteousness and peace. By citing Melchizedek and his unique priesthood as a type, the writer shows that Christ's new priesthood is superior to the old Levitical order and the priesthood of Aaron (Hebrews 7:1-10). Some propose that Melchizedek was actually a pre-incarnate appearance of Jesus Christ. While possible, I find this view unlikely. Melchizedek was the king of Salem. Would Jesus Christ have come to earth and ruled as an earthly king over a city? I seriously doubt it. Melchizedek is similar to Christ in that they are both priests and kings - but they are not the same person.7


Psalms Song Category

The Psalms Song Category is a great starting point for searching the songs which make up this music category. The song category page contains Daily Scriptures and easy links to song previews and song pages. The song pages include interesting background information and commentary about the songs and the Bible author. Sometimes there are links to related web pages including Bible Quotes, Sermons, Music samples, and Bible Puzzles.

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